Speical Mentions, 'Programming Languages'


I must admit that i like programming languages without them, very little computing would have ever be done, it would be spectacularly buggy, require teams of genius mathmaticuns and people like me would not get paid vast amounts of money for writting rubbish in them.

A Breif History of Programing Languages

In the beginning all programming was done in binary,.. directly into the machine, this was 1GL, or the 1st Generation Language (if you can call it that). With more advanced programs and CPUs, programs were coded in Octal (base 8), format and used the machine code operations of a certain computer. This was both spectaculary tedious and error prone,.. to this end Assembler's or 2GLs were developed that created machine code from slightly more intelageable codes, that could be verified.

The very first compiler was developed in 1954 A-0, was a single pass octal complier for the UNIVAC I. It was developed for the US Navey, and progressed through A-2 and A-3, with the addition of more mathmatical functions. However it was still operating at a very low level, a team at IBM, started to develop the worlds first first 3GL, or high level language, FORTRAN, incorperating a psudo-hardware dependant instruction set, and a sane syntax, it was a major leap forward. Most of todays languages are 3GL, providing efficency at speed at the expence of a limited instruction set.

The trend today is towards more powerfull 4GLs, which started to appear in the yearly 90s with visual development systems, and automatic code generation facilities, these languages are totaly extrapolated from the hardware. They do not offer the same optimisation as 3GLs, let alone 2GLs, by are very easy to use, infact some life Visual Basic are often used without the knowledge of the computer operator.

To be continued,... i hope so,.. this is how i earn my money,..



ANSI C & ATT C++
Origninaly defined by Brian Kernghan and Dennis Ritche, as a systems programming language for the Unix operating system, which they were writing for Bell Labs. As the langauage became widespread because of its versitility, is became ANSI standardised. However the programming world is never content to let a language lie, and so C++, with is classes and beefed up library was released. The big advantage is that its is a mid-level language that allows hardware bashing but also machine indipendant code.

Pascal, (Turbo, Object, Concurrent)
Concurrent Pascal was defined during the creaton of the RC 4000 OS, by Brinch Hansen and allowed multi-programing (processing) to be used through join and fork statements. Later used for the Solo operating system. Pascal is itself very much like a C / Basic mix, often used for teaching. It is also used allot in the Macintosh OS and also in some areas of windows (bo hiss.)

Assember, (68k, PPC, x86, Alpha, MIPS, Sparc, Z8xx, and 100s of others)
The original language, based in the 50s and 60s, and thats were it really should be left. If you like near impossible de-bugging, insance looking code and massive code lengths then this is for you.

Java
Java, is not only a small indonesian island and a type of coffee but one of the most revolutionry progrmaing languages around. Developed by Sun Microsystems, Java is a cross platform, interpritable / JIT Compileable language. The special features include total cross platform portablity, achived through extensive, Hardware Extraction Layers. Java also includes extensive garbage collection facilites for defensive programming. Java has also spurned ofspring such as Java Appletes and Java Beans. A Killer web language and its easy to.

JavaScript & JScript
The BIG new langauge of the web, used massivly and almost universaly for client side scripts, still very underdeveloped as a language and with many problems but the ebst thing to have come out of Netscape as of yet.

COBOL
The Common Business Orinated Language, or COBOL was developed out of the need for a more powerfull set of data types and operations and business software required. COBOL was a great success despite much inital hostility, because of the multituide of machine/compiler combinations. However the US DOD, enforced its use as a stanard, not because of its worth but because it was available. COBOL is not used much nowerdays, except in removing the "Year 2000" bug from old machines.

Fortran
The Formular Translation Language, as FORTRAN is known, was one of the very first operational high level compilers. Sill essentaly a Scientifc / Mathmatic language, it was used as the basic for most languages of the time.

Forth
Oringinaly designed to control radio/IR telescopes, it has now gained a cult following for no real reason other than it sounds cool, (apparently).

Algol
The Algorithmic Language, or Algol, was one of the new wave of high level programming languages developed in the late 60s in a responce to the so called "software-crisis".
Used to create THE operating system, 1968. (Technische Hogeschool Eindhoven) from that university.

PL/1
PL/1 was used allmost entirely for the creation ofthe Multics OS, forunner to Unix, made by MIT and Bell during 1969-7x. Development was however done entirely bu IBM, expanding on the scketchy NPL definition. PL/1 was designed for a broad range of actives and as such was endowed with generic data types and structures that could be used across all applications.

COBRA
The Common Object BRoker Archetecture, is a method of using C/++ and Java to operate of distributed enviroments, loading modules from distant locations and invoking objects in a portable fashion. THE compteitor to DCOM.

Rexx & Arexx
Rexx was developed by IBM in the early 90s, ARexx was developed by Commodre Amiga and now Gateway Amiga was the AmigaOS inter-process communication language, it is user extendable and is implmented as compliled or intupreted macro or scripting langauage.

REBOL
The Amiga Guru, Carl Sassenrath's own personal scripting / control language. Developed to make computer control across applications easyer and quicker using a simplified user complementable language definiton. And is a real natural born killer, so easy to learn and with a masssive internal library of functions.

Perl
The Pathologicaly Ecletitic Rubblish Lister, is the main CGI scripting langauge, used in server side scripting, based on UNix systems but avalable on everything.

Ada
ADA was developed as a 'fresh start' language for use in business and Ministry of Defence appliations.

Amiga E
E is an object oriented / procedural / unpure functional higher programming language, mainly influenced by languages such as C++, Ada, Lisp etc.
It is a general-purpose programming language, and the Amiga implementation is specifically targeted at programming system applications.

Basic (Visual, Blitz, DFA, and about a million others)
The Beginners All purpose Symbolic Instruction Code, or BASIC was developed at the Dartmouth College in 1963-64, originaly by T.E Kurtz and J.G Kemeny, one of a large number of languages developed at the same college. Used extenivly for teaching because of its extream simplisy and provided for almost every computer platform.

B
Foruner to C, and conncurent with BCPL. A typeless language with no set datatypes.

BCPL
The forunner to C, and quite simmilar in syntax to non-ansi C, but without any datatypes, once fashionable but now obsolete.

Prolog
The Programmable Logic Language, is (was) widly used in AI and simulations development, has now be ecipsed by Object Oriantated Languages.

Oberon
I know the name thats all, sorry, but i have seen a book on it (once).

Modula II
From the guy who brought us Oberon, we now have Modula, but still based in Pascal.

TCL
Another Unix based server side scripting langauge, Perl with a diffrent name also used in CGI scripting.

Delphi
I think Visial Pascal for the 90's is the best way to describe this, BIG in Rappid Apps Development, as a competitor to VB.

Amos
Amos was developed as a simple but proportiey game programing language for the Amiga platform of computers. It allowed quick programing through the presnece of many pre-defined functions, it did this however at the expence of Operating System concurrance. Later AMOS Pro and 3D versions were also produced.

Secal
Secal is a propiatory language developed primarly from the 68k Amiga/AmigaDos/Workbench platform, it combined a high level set of commands with powerfull, almost assembler level control of the hardware.

Python
A Multi-Platform, (and totaly free) programming language, very 'new style' based on objects, can be inturprited or compiled, is the scripting language of StarOffice.

APL
The Application Programming Language, was designed as a general purpose language. It however seemed to be primarly used to create complex mathmatical programs.

APT
The Automated Production Tooling Language was designed, (somewhat supprisingly) to drive machine tools, as such it is heavly based on mathmatical calculation of curved surfaces. This leads to code that is more Algibraic than human, but it has been extensivly in industry.

GPSS
The General Purpose Simulation System Langauge, was developed by IBM and Geoffrey Gordon. GPSS was used extensivly for stock exchange systems, traffic control systems, airline reservation systems, this was one of the first real time control systems.

JOSS
The JOHNNIAC Open Shop System, JOSS was one of the earliest interactive, multi-user languages. Developed by J.C Shaw, T.O Ellis, I.D Nehama, A. Newell and K.W Uncapher at the RAND Corperation. Inital used on the JOHNNIAC computer (hence the acronym), they system was only fully operational for 13 months, but many langauges were influnced and the massive list of offshoots shows the importance of this langauge.
JOSS Offspring include...CITRAN, FILECOMP, ESI, MATH, JEAN, FOCAL, AMTRAN, MUPS, ABLE and probably more...!

JOVIAL
Jules Own Version of the International Algebraic Language, heavily based on ALGOL but featureing heavyweight support for complex realtime systems.

LISP
LISP is a conceptualy unique language that is based on symbolic computation instead of numbers, which alowed lisp to be used for AI or Artifical Inteligence work.

SIMULA
Developed by the Norwegian Computing Center, Ole-Johan Dahl and Kristen Nygaard. SIMULA is a Sytems description and simulation language.

SNOBOL
The StriNg Oriented symBOlic Language. Originaly called SEXI..!!!, and created such hummorus offsrping such as ICEBOL, SPITBOL, FASBOL, SNOBAT and SLOBOL.!!
This is a somewhat perverse language that was intended just to process strings,.. to this end it had just one datatype and extensive char/string processing functions. Numeric features were however added at a later data.

HYTRAN
Developed by EAI

INTERP
Developed by Burroughs

TINT
Developed by SDC

RUSH
Developed by ABC

CPS
Developed by IBM

COMIT
A natural language oritated processing language.